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Vulcano Trou au Natron, Tibesti Mountains

Trou au Natron is a volcano in the nation of Chad in Northern Africa. It is located just south east of Toussidé, the westernmost volcano of the Tibesti Mountains.

The Tibesti Mountains are a volcanic group of inactive volcanoes with one potentially active volcano in the central Sahara desert in the Bourkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region of northern Chad. The northern slopes extend a short distance into southern Libya.
The mountains are the largest and highest range in the Sahara. The highest peak is Emi Koussi, 3,415 m. Other summits include Kegueur Terbi (3,376 m), Tarso Taro (3,325 m), the potentially active volcano Pic Tousside (3,265 m) and Tarso Voon (3,100 m). While the high peaks themselves are all constituted of volcanic material, the mountains stand on broad uplifted area possibly caused by a mantle plume.
are a number of vegetative and wildlife species in the Tibesti Mountains. In Chad there may be as many as 50 endangered Painted Hunting Dogs, but some regard these relict populations in the Tibesti Mountains as extirpated, partially from Darfur refugee turmoil and other Sudan generated conflict.
The mountains are known for their ancient cave paintings, mostly dating from the 5th to the 3rd millennium BC, and for the geysers and hot springs around Soboroum.

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The area has long been home to the Toubou people which had trading relations with Carthage from the 500s BC. The main town in the area is Bardaï, while Zouar and Aouzou are smaller settlements.

The range has a substantially wetter climate than the arid surrounding desert; annual rainfall is estimated at five inches (12 cm) in some of the highest areas of the mountains
The Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat Montane Xeric Woodland ecoregion is an island of higher biodiversity rising from the dry, harsh Sahara Desert in North Africa. Many parts of this ecoregion are yet to be fully explored due to civil unrest between Chad and Libya, and the remote location of the area. The known flora and fauna includes endemic species and highly endangered antelopes, such as the addax and the scimitar-horned oryx, the latter of which is now believed extinct in the wild.
This ecoregion is made up of two isolated montane areas in the central part of the Sahara Desert. Lying halfway between Lake Chad and the Gulf of Syrte, the larger Tibesti Mountains area is found in the northern portion of Chad, and extends marginally into southern Libya. The Tibesti Mountains consist of seven inactive volcanoes, with the highest peak reaching 3,415 m. The second, smaller area is the Jebel Uweinat, located further to the east along the intersection of eastern Libya, southwestern Egypt, and northwestern Sudan. The Jebel Uweinat includes peaks reaching elevations just under 2,000 m.

Annual average rainfall in the surrounding Sahara Desert is under 100 mm, and extremely unreliable, as years may pass with no rainfall followed by a single thunderstorm lasting only a few hours. In the montane ecoregion rainfall is more regular, although still quite low. Lowland wadis areas receive their water from the mountains down storm channels. This water remains for a considerable period, as these areas have natural impermeable layers and shield-like sand covers that slow evaporation (Cloudsley-Thompson 1984). The mean maximum temperature is approximately 30°C in the lowlands and falls to 20°C in the highest elevations. Mean minimum temperatures are 12°C in the lowlands, but fall to 9°C over most of the ecoregion and are as low as 0°C at the highest elevations during winter months.

The geology of this ecoregion is volcanic in origin, with a large area of Tertiary basalt within an expanse of Nubian sandstones. The soils developed over the basalts are typically thin, with lithosols being predominant. Bare rock and regosols also occupy large areas of the ecoregion.

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